wireless microsensor

In future smart environments, wireless sensor networks will play a key role in sensing, collecting, and

disseminating information about environmental phenomena. Sensing applications represent a new paradigm for

network operation, one that has different goals from more traditional wireless networks. This paper

examines this emerging field to classify wireless micro-sensor networks according to different

communication functions, data delivery models, and network dynamics. This taxonomy will aid in defining

appropriate communication infrastructures for different sensor network application sub spaces, allowing

network designers to choose the protocol architecture that best matches the goals of their application. In

addition, this taxonomy will enable new sensor network models to be defined for use in further research in

this area.

A wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of spatially distributed autonomous sensors to cooperatively

monitor physical or environmental conditions, such as temperature, sound, vibration, pressure, motion or

pollutants. The development of wireless sensor networks was motivated by military applications such as

battlefield surveillance. They are now used in many industrial and civilian application areas, including

industrial process monitoring and control, machine health monitoring, environment and habitat monitoring,

healthcare applications, home automation, and traffic control.
In addition to one or more sensors, each node in a sensor network is typically equipped with a radio

transceiver or other wireless communications device, a small microcontroller, and an energy source,

usually a battery. A sensor node might vary in size from that of a shoebox down to the size of a grain of

dust,[1] although functioning “motes” of genuine microscopic dimensions have yet to be created. The cost

of sensor nodes is similarly variable, ranging from hundreds of dollars to a few pennies, depending on the

size of the sensor network and the complexity required of individual sensor nodes. Size and cost

constraints on sensor nodes result in corresponding constraints on resources such as energy, memory,

computational speed and bandwidth.
A sensor network normally constitutes a wireless ad-hoc network, meaning that each sensor supports a

multi-hop routing algorithm (several nodes may forward data packets to the base station).
In computer science and telecommunications, wireless sensor networks are an active research area with

numerous workshops and conferences arranged each year.

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