A variable capacitance diode is known as a varicap diode or as a varactor. If a diode is reverse biased, an insulating depletion region forms between the two semiconductive layers. In many diodes the width of the depletion region may be changed by varying the reverse bias. This varies the capacitance. This effect is accentuated in varicap diodes. The schematic symbols is shown in Figure , one of which is packaged as common cathode dual diode.

Varicap diode: Capacitance varies with reverse bias. This varies the frequency of a resonant network.

If a varicap diode is part of a resonant circuit as in Figure , the frequency my be varied with a control voltage, Vcontrol. A large capacitance, low Xc, in series with the varicap prevents Vcontrol from being shorted out by inductor L. As long as the series capacitor is large, it has minimal effect on the frequency of resonant circuit. Coptional may be used to set the center resonant frequency. Vcontrol can then vary the frequency about this point. Note that the required active circuitry to make the resonant network oscillate is not shown. For an example of a varicap diode tuned AM radio receiver see “electronic varicap diode tuning,”

Some varicap diodes may be referred to as abrupt, hyperabrupt, or super hyper abrupt. These refer to the change in junction capacitance with changing reverse bias as being abrupt or hyper-abrupt, or super hyperabrupt. These diodes offer a relatively large change in capacitance. This is useful when oscillators or filters are swept over a large frequency range. Varying the bias of abrupt varicaps over the rated limits, changes capacitance by a 4:1 ratio, hyperabrupt by 10:1, super hyperabrupt by 20:1.

Varactor diodes may be used in frequency multiplier circuits. See “Practical analog semiconductor circuits,” Varactor multiplier

Snap diode

The snap diode, also known as the step recovery diode is designed for use in high ratio frequency multipliers up to 20 gHz. When the diode is forward biased, charge is stored in the PN junction. This charge is drawn out as the diode is reverse biased. The diode looks like a low impedance current source during forward bias. When reverse bias is applied it still looks like a low impedance source until all the charge is withdrawn. It then “snaps” to a high impedance state causing a voltage impulse, rich in harmonics. An applications is a comb generator, a generator of many harmonics. Moderate power 2x and 4x multipliers are anothe application.