Dennis Ma RF Receiver Systems and Circuits

Stephen Yue RF mixer circuit Linearization Techniques

Hossein Alizadeh Active and Passive CMOS mixers

Jeff Chow RF Image-Reject Receivers

Paul Westergaard CMOS LNA’s

Oscillators

Aichin Chung LC oscillators: Theory and Design

Marcus van Ierssel Oscillator phase noise and jitter

Boris Krnic Phase noise of VCOs

Imran Ahmed Wide Range Tuning in CMOS LC-VCOs

Robert Przyslupski Frequency regenerative dividers

Eric Hu Low-Voltage Phase-locked Loop Design Techniques

Faisal Musa Noise Analysis of PLL and System Trade-offs

Jonathan Cheung Low-jitter phase locked loops

Operational Amplifiers

Eliyahu Zamir Low voltage opamp design Techniques

Tony Pialis Low voltage, low power op amp design

Ricky Yuen Low-Voltage Switched-Op amp Circuits

Ahmed Gharbiya Op Amps Rail to Rail Input Stages Using Complementary Differential Pairs

Analog Building Blocks

Shahriar Shahramian *High Speed Track and Hold Amplifier

Raymond Tam CMOS Variable Gain Amplifiers

Stephen Liu Universal Active Elements

Altan Hazneci Current feedback Amps

Donny Mota Fully-Differential Op Amps and Common Mode Feedback Circuit Design

Louie Pylarinos, Charge Pump Circuits

Reference Circuits

The difference is that a votalge source keeps the votalge constant but a current source keeps the current constant. So, a votalge source does not care about the current, its duty is to keep the votalge as required. The current passing through a votalge source can be negative, zero or positive, it may vary by time but the votalge is constant for sure. A current source is the dual. Voltage across a current source can be positive, zero or negative or it can vary by time but the current is fixed. Do not try to find a simple physical element which matches with a current source. For a votalge source, a battery is a perfect match but there is no such a element which matches current sources that perfect. Some elements behave like current sources in some operating point.

The difference is that a votalge source keeps the votalge constant but a current source keeps the current constant. So, a votalge source does not care about the current, its duty is to keep the votalge as required. The current passing through a votalge source can be negative, zero or positive, it may vary by time but the votalge is constant for sure. A current source is the dual. Voltage across a current source can be positive, zero or negative or it can vary by time but the current is fixed. Do not try to find a simple physical element which matches with a current source. For a votalge source, a battery is a perfect match but there is no such a element which matches current sources that perfect. Some elements behave like current sources in some operating point.