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low noise amplifier


Introduction : THE LNA is the block entrusted to amplify the weak signal received by the antenna in a reception system. In wireless systems with high requirements, the LNA design is critical because it should provide enough gain to the low power signals that arrive at the antenna, not degrade the signal-noise ratio , and be capable to sustain large signals with low distortion and low power dissipation. Additionally, since the previous stage of the LNA is an antenna or a filter, a specific input impedance (50 ohm) to guarantee the maximum power transference is needed. In this way, the LNA design implicates a commitment among enough gain, low noise figure, input (and sometimes output) matching, high linearity, and low power. A clear strategy to LNA RF CMOS design that involves the optimization of the noise and linearity performance with a specified gain and power dissipation is not available in the literature. In the last years, large number of LNA circuits in RF CMOS has been presented, however, few accurate methodologies have been proposed. Since the LNA dominates the global noise figure of a receiver, almost all the methods are based on the optimization of the noise performance with predefined gain and power dissipation, meantime the other parameters are adapted to the specifications using simulations and interactive procedures. The linearity performance as a direct objective of design is important for broadband LNAs used in multi-standard systems and for applications The noise performance of a LNA is directly related to the input matching circuit. Different circuit topologies have been proposed with the purpose to match the input for maximum power transfer taking into account the trade-off of a reduced noise contribution. The common source stage with inductive degeneration similar to the topologies often used in LNAs, showed the best noise performance in CMOS . However, other designers have tuned the input impedance that minimizes the noise figure using the classic noise theory
If you are not experienced designer start with fundamentals from this class notes
Designing an LNA for a CDMA front end, LNA design is critical in modern communication systems.Understanding necessary additional design considerations can save both time and money.,Jarek Lucek and Robbin Damen
A 2GHz Low-Distortion Low-Noise Two-Stage LNA Employing LowImpedance BiasTerminations and Optimum Inter-Stage Match for Linearity , Shah P.,Qualcomm Inc
A 9mW, 900-MHz CMOS LNA with 1.05dB-Noise-Figure,Gramegna G., STMicroelectronics
A Universal Dual Band LNA Implementation in SiGe-Technology for Wireless Applications, Schmidt A.,Infineon Technologies
Generating All 2-Transistor Circuits Leads to New Wide-Band CMOS LNAs,Bruccoleri F.,University of Twente
Using Capactive Cross-Coupling Technique in RF Low Noise Amplifiers and Down-Conversion Mixer Design,Zhuo W.,Texas A&M University
A 1.5-V, 1.5-GHz CMOS Low Noise Amplifier, Derek K. Shaeffer and Thomas H. Lee, research JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS
A Fully Integrated 1.9-GHz CMOS Low-Noise Amplifier, Cheon Soo Kim,Min Park, Chung-Hwan Kim, Yeong Cheol Hyeon, Hyun Kyu Yu, Kwyro Lee, and Kee Soo Nam, research MICROWAVE AND GUIDED WAVE LETTERS
FULLY-INTEGRATED DECT/BLUETOOTH MULTI-BAND LNA IN 0.18 mm CMOS , Vojkan Vidojkovic, Johan van der Tang, Eric Hanssen, Arjan Leeuwenburgh and Arthur van Roermund.
rf amplifiers
emitter generation feed back amplifier
feed back amplifier
small signal amplifier
buffer amplifier
CDMA LNA Design
class notes, sandiego.edu
LNA design Mathcad routine
CMOS gate noise,modeling for LNAs
CMOS LNA design article
LNA design tool for MDS from Artetronics
LNA and PA application notes , maxim
transceiver design class notes
LNA Papers free download
C18.01 – A 1.3dB NF CMOS LNA for GPS with 3kV HBM ESD-protection
A 5.2GHz LNA in 0.35µm CMOS Utilizing Inter-Stage Series Resonance and Optimizing the Substrate Resistance
A 2.7V, 1.8GHz, 4th Order Tunable LC Bandpass Filter with ±0.25dB Passband Ripple
A Packaged 2.4 GHz LNA in a 0.15-micron CMOS Process with 2kV HBM ESD Protection
A Tuned, Inductorless, Recursive Filter LNA in CMOSDesigning an LNA for a CDMA front end,LNA design is critical in modern communication systems. Understanding necessary additional design A 2GHz Low-Distortion Low-Noise Two-Stage LNA Employing LowImpedance BiasTerminations and Optimum Inter-Stage Match for Linearity, Shah P., Qualcomm Inc. ESSCIRC 2000 A 9mW, 900-MHz CMOS LNA with 1.05dB-Noise-Figure, Gramegna G., STMicroelectronics. ESSCIRC 2000.

A Universal Dual Band LNA Implementation in SiGe-Technology for Wireless Applications, Schmidt A., Infineon Technologies AG. ESSCIRC 2000

Generating All 2-Transistor Circuits Leads to New Wide-Band CMOS LNAs,

RF Power Amplifiers
A Low Voltage Fully-Integrated 0.18µm CMOS Power Amplifier for 5GHz WLAN
A Fully Integrated Class 1 Bluetooth 0.25µm CMOS PA
A Monolithic 2.45GHz Power Amplifier in SiGe-Bipolar with 0.4W Output Power and 53% PAE at 2V



download Using Capactive Cross-Coupling Technique in RF Low Noise Amplifiers and Down-Conversion Mixer Design, Zhuo W.,



download A 1.5-V, 1.5-GHz CMOS Low Noise Amplifier,Derek K. Shaeffer and Thomas H. Lee, research JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 32, NO. 5, MAY 1997.




download A Fully Integrated 1.9-GHz CMOS Low-Noise Amplifier,Cheon Soo Kim,Min Park, Chung-Hwan Kim, Yeong Cheol Hyeon, Hyun Kyu Yu, Kwyro Lee, and Kee Soo Nam, research MICROWAVE AND GUIDED WAVE LETTERS, VOL. 8, NO. 8, AUGUST 1999




download FULLY-INTEGRATED DECT/BLUETOOTH MULTI-BAND LNA IN 0.18 mm CMOS, Vojkan Vidojkovic, Johan van der Tang, Eric Hanssen, Arjan Leeuwenburgh and Arthur van Roermund.




download DESIGN OF LNA AT 2.4 GHz USING 0.25 um CMOS TECHNOLOGY, Xiaomin Yang,1 Thomas X. Wu,1 and John McMacken, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Central Florida, MICROWAVE AND OPTICAL TECHNOLOGY LETTERS / Vol. 36, No. 4, February 20 2003.

Power amplifierdesign papers free download
An Integrated 2GHz 500mW Bipolar Amplifier,Dr. S. Weber, G. Doing,ISSCC/RFIC 1998, Denver.
Modeling for Si-Bipolar Power Amplifiers,Dr. S. Weber, AACD 1998, Kopenhagen.
First Integrated Bipolar RF PA Family for Cordless Telephones,Dr. Stephan Weber, ESSCIRC 1999 Duisburg.
Power Controller for Dual Band TDMA Power Amplifiers,Dr. Stephan Weber, RFIC/IMS 2001, Phoenix.
PA Design,Danilo Gerna, Alexandre Giry, CRAFT, EUROPEAN PROJECT N.25710, September First 1999.
MONOLITHIC TRANSFORMER-COUPLED RF POWER AMPLIFIERS IN SI-BIPOLAR,Werner Simbuerger, D. Kehrer, A. Heinz, H.D. Wohlmuth, M. Rest, K. Aufinger, A.L. Scholtz, presentation at AACD 2001.
MONOLITHIC TRANSFORMER-COUPLED RF POWER AMPLIFIERS IN SI-BIPOLAR,Werner Simbuerger, D. Kehrer, A. Heinz, H.D. Wohlmuth, M. Rest, K. Aufinger, A.L. Scholtz, presentation at AACD 2001.Presentation slides.
RF Power Amplifier Design,Markus Mayer & Holger Arthaber, Department of Electrical Measurements and Circuit Design, Vienna University of Technology, June 11, 2001
Report on HF MOST model benchmarking through key blocks validation, the simulated performance of a simple 900 MHz Power Amplifier is compared with its measured performance,” R. van Dongen, European Project Project Nr. 25710 August 26, 1999.
DECT power amplifier chip,” in : Wireless Trench technology for portable wireless applications, Ericsson Review No. 01, 2001Ted Johansson.
A 2.4-GHz, 2.2-W, 2-V Fully-Integrated CMOS Circular-Geometry Active-Transformer Power Amplifier
A MONOLITHIC 5.8 GHZ POWER AMPLIFIER IN A 25 GHZ FT SILICON BIPOLAR TECHNOLOGY,W. Simbürger e.a., Infineon Technologies, Corporate Research, Otto-Hahn-Ring 6, D-81730 Munich, Germany.
Design of a Dual-Band Wireless LAN SiGe-Bipolar, Power Amplifier, Winfried Bakalski, Krzysztof Kitlinski, Günter Donig, Boris Kapfelsperger, Christian Kuehn, Carsten Ahrens, Wilfried Österreicher and Wolfgang Auchter, Infineon Technologies AG, Robert Weigel, Univ. of Erlangen; and Arpad L. Scholtz, Vienna Univ. of Technology, September 2004 High Frequency Electronics.
CMOS LNA design and
noise anlysis of LNA
class notes ualberta.ca
CDMA LNA design, a philps application note
LNA Cross modulation
WCDMA LNA linearity
noise notes Georgia Tech 4391 class
LNA and PA design, eesof article
class notes, ece.wpi.edu
PA linearization
PA Design Articles
PA design class
Nonlinear Capacitance in Class E PAs
CMOSPA design 6
microwave class ualberta.ca
Linearized PA for EDGE

Books on LNAs and PAs

1. RF Power Amplifiers, Mihai Albulet,
2.RF Circuit Design II:Active Circuits and Systems,
3.RF Power Amplifiers for Wireless Communications, Steve C. Cripps
4. Small Signal Microwave Amplifier Design, Theodore Grosch
5. RF CMOS Power Amplifiers, Hella, Kluwer
6. High Linearity RF Amplifier Design, Peter Kenington,Artech
7. Distortion in RF Power Amplifiers, Joel Vuolevi, Artech
8.Design of Linear RF Outphasing PAs, Zhang et al. Artech.
9. Power Amplifier Design, from Applied Microwave and Wireless
10. Small-Signal Amplifier Design, from Applied Microwave and Wireless





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COMMENT Uncategorized



  1. LNA project idea

    Propose a high frequency linearization technique to meet the linearity requirements for the
    UWB systems. Compare your results with previous reported linearization. The LNA
    should satisfy the following specifications:
    BW: 3.1~4.8GHz
    IIP3 > 13dBm
    S11 15dB
    NF< 4dB
    Minimize Power Consumption.
    Use Taylor / Volterra series to do theoretical analysis for the proposed linearization technique.

  2. Guru

    Noise

    All amplifiers generate a certain amount of electrical noise. Note: the noise I refer to here is noise inherent in semiconductor circuits , not noise caused by improper wiring, poor shielding, etc. Generally, the more powerful the amplifier, the more noise it will put out. If you turn on an amplifier (with the input device connected but powered off) and listen to a speaker connected to the amp you can clearly hear a hissing sound. This pretty much represents the noise floor of the amplifier. If the amp has an input level control you will likely notice that the noise may vary as a function of the setting of the control. For a powerful system, the noise might seem pretty obvious and annoying; however when actual music is playing the noise will be totally masked.

    All electrical circuits generate a certain amount of noise. Better designs minimize the amount of noise, however no matter how good the design there will always be some. The noise comes from several sources, some of it is generated by the movement of electrons in the system and cannot be eliminated (unless you chill your equipment to absolute zero!). The noise floor of an amplifier by itself is usually not obviously audible in a typical room (unless you are standing right next to a speaker). However, the remaining components in a system (preamp, equalizer, processor, etc.) each add in some noise. So, the total system noise (when no music is playing) might be objectionable. If this is a serious problem, a device called a noise gate can be used. Such a device is essentially a “squelch” which is wired in just before the power amps (or electronic crossover in multi-way systems). The device is basically cuts noise from upstream components when no music is playing. Most noise gates have adjustable controls to set the threshold at which noise cut begins and also to set the amount of desired noise cut. Most DJ systems probably do not need noise gates unless they are very high powered systems with a long signal chain (or noisy components).

    The noise floor of an amplifier is relatively constant, meaning it does not increase with increasing output signal (unless the amplifier has a poorly regulated power supply). In other words, the amplifier’s noise floor is pretty much the same whether or not music is playing loudly or softly. So, when music is playing softly, the noise will be proportionally larger. When music is playing loudly, the noise is essentially “buried” or masked.

    As stated, an amplifier with a poorly regulated power supply can create some additional noise. If the filtering of the power supply is marginal, the “smoothness” of the DC power supply voltage will be degraded when the amplifier is playing loudly. This will result in additional noise being added to the system (generally in the form of 60 Hz products). This type of noise isn’t really part of the noise floor. Such noise is often inaudible when music is playing loudly. It can be clearly heard however when playing test tones at levels near the output limit of the amplifier






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