Charging nickel-based batteries
The reliability and longevity of a battery hinges, to a large extent, on the quality of the charger. Battery chargers are often given low priority, especially for consumer products. In this paper we address the charger as the quintessential provider and guardian of the battery. We look at various charge methods that will increase the performance of nickel-based batteries. Charging lithium and lead-based batteries are described on separate papers.
A battery should always remain cool during charging because high temperatures shorten battery life. Some temperature rise with nickel-based batteries cannot be avoided. The time during which the battery temperature remains elevated should be as short as possible. The temperature rise occurs in the second half of the charge cycle. The battery should cool to room temperature when on trickle charge. If the temperature remains above room temperature after a few hours in ready mode, the charger is performing incorrectly. In such as case, remove the battery when ready. The caution applies especially to nickel-metal-hydride because this chemistry cannot absorb overcharge well.
Nickel-based chargers are grouped into three categories:
Slow Charger – Also known as ‘overnight charger’, the slow charger applies a fixed charge of about 0.1C* (one-tenth of the rated capacity) for as long as the battery is connected. Charge time is 14-16 hours. Slow chargers are found in cord-less phones, portable CD players and other consumer goods.
Quick Charger – Also knows as rapid charger, this charger serves the middle range, both in terms of charging time and price. Charging time is 3-6 hours. The charger switches the battery to trickle charge when ready. Quick-chargers are used for cell phones, laptops and camcorders.
Fast Charger – Designed for nickel-based battery, the fast charger fills a pack in about one hour. Fast charging is preferred because of reduced crystalline formation (memory). Accurate full-charge detection is important. When full, the charger switches to topping and then trickle charge. Fast chargers are used for industrial devices such as two-way radios, medical devices and power tools.
New nickel-based batteries should be trickle-charged for 24 hours prior to use. Trickle charge brings all cells to equal charge level because each cell self-discharges at a different rate. Trickle charge also redistributes the electrolyte to remedy dry spots on the separator brought on by gravitation of the electrolyte during long storage.
* The C-rate is a unit by which charge and discharge currents are scaled. A charge current of 1000mAh, or 1C, will charge a 1000mAh battery in slightly more than one hour. A 1C discharge lasts one hour.
Some battery manufacturers do not fully f rm the cells before shipment. Full performance is reached after the battery has been primed through several charge/discharge cycles, either with a battery analyzer or through normal use. In some cases, 50-100 discharge/charge cycles are needed to obtain full performance. Properly formed cells perform to specification after 5-7 cycles.
Most rechargeable cells are equipped with a safety vent to release excess pressure if over-charged. The safety vent on a nickel-based cell opens between 10-13 Bar (150-200 psi). (The pressure of a car tire is about 2.3 Bar or 35 psi.) With a resealable vent, no damage occurs after venting. Some electrolyte is lost and the seal may leak afterwards. A white powder accumulating at the vent opening indicates venting activities.
The overall charge efficiency of nickel-cadmium is about 90% if fast charged at 1C. On a 0.1C overnight charge, the efficiency drops to 70% and the charge time is 14 hours or longer.
In the initial 70% of charge, the charge acceptance of a healthy ickel-cadmium battery is close to 100%. The battery remains cool because all energy is absorbed. Currents of several times the C-rating can be applied without heat buildup. Ultra-fast chargers use this phenomenon to charge a battery to the 70% level within minutes. Past 70%, the battery gradually loses the ability to accept charge. The pressure and temperature increase. Figure 1 illustrates the relationship of cell voltage, pressure and temperature while nickel-cadmium is being charged.
Ultra-high capacity nickel-cadmium batteries tend to heat up more than the standard version on fast-charge. This is partly due to increased internal cell resistance. To moderate the temperature buildup and achieve short charge times, advanced chargers apply a high current at the beginning and then lower the amount to harmonize with the charge acceptance.
Interspersing discharge pulses between charge pulses improves the charge acceptance of nickel-based batteries. Commonly referred to as burp or reverse load charging, this method promotes high surface area on the electrodes to improve the recombination of gases generated during charge. The results are better performance, reduced memory and longer service life.
Full-charge detection is based on a combination of voltage drop at full charge (negative delta V), rate-of-temperature-increase (dT/dt), absolute temperature and timeout timers. The charger utilizes whatever comes first to terminate the fast-charge.
After the initial fast charge, some fast-chargers apply a timed topping charged. In an attempt to gain a few extra capacity points, some chargers apply a measured amount of overcharge. The capacity gain is about 6%. The negative is shorter cycle life. The recommended trickle charge for nickel-cadmium is between 0.05C and 0.1C. Because of memory concerns and compatibility with nickel-metal-hydride, the trickle charge is set as low as possible.
Nickel-metal-hydride chargers require more complex electronics than nickel-cadmium systems. To begin with, nickel-metal-hydride produces a very small voltage drop at full charge and the NDV is almost non-existent at charge rates below 0.5C and elevated temperatures. Aging and degenerating cell match diminish the already minute voltage delta further. This makes full charge detection difficult.
A nickel-metal-hydride charger must respond to a voltage drop of 8-16mV per cell. Making the charger too sensitive may terminate the fast charge halfway through the charge due to voltage fluctuations and electrical noise. Most of today’s nickel-metal-hydride chargers use a combination of NDV, rate-of-temperature-increase (dT/dt), temperature sensing and timeout timers. The charger utilizes whatever comes first to terminate the fast-charge.
Nickel-metal-hydride should be rapid charged rather than slow charged. Because of poor overch rge absorption, the trickle charge must be lower than that of nickel-cadmium and is usually around 0.05C. This explains why the original nickel-cadmium charger cannot be used nickel-metal-hydride.
It is difficult, if not impossible, to slow-charge a nickel-metal-hydride. At a C?rate of 0.1-0.3C, the voltage and temperature profiles fail to exhibit defined characteristics to measure the full charge state accurately and the charger must rely on a timer. Harmful overcharge can occur if a partially or fully charged battery is charged with a fixed timer. The same occurs if the battery has aged and can only hold 50 instead of 100% charge. Overcharge could occur even though the battery feels cool to the touch.
Lower-priced chargers may not apply a fully saturated charge. Some will indicate full-charge immediately after a voltage or temperature peak is reached. These chargers are commonly sold on the merit of short charge time and moderate price.
Avoid high temperature during charging. Discontinue the use of ch rgers that cook batteries.
A charger for nickel-metal-hydride can also accommodate nickel-cadmiu
but not the other way around. A charger designed for nickel-cadmium would overcharge the nickel-metal-hydride battery.
nickel-based batteries prefer fast-charge. Lingering slow charges cause crystalline formation (memory).
nickel- and lithium-based batteries require different charge algorithms. The two chemistries can normally not be interchanged in the same charger.
If not used immediately, remove the battery from the charger and apply a topping-charge before use. Do not leave nickel-based battery in the charger for more than a few days, even if on trickle charge.
A well-designed charger is a reasonably complex device. Taking short cuts will cost the user in the long run. Choosing a well-engineered charger will return the investment in longer lasting and better performing batteries.