Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) batteries have a special glass mat to contain the electrolyte between the battery plates.
These are sealed lead-acid (SLA) batteries with a gelified electrolyte. These batteries do not produce electrolyte evaporation or spillage, common to wet-cell batteries. This, in turn, makes them more resistant to vibrations, shocks and high temperatures.
Today, the nickel-iron battery (NiFe) is the most important commercial rechargeable system using iron electrodes. They are physically almost indestructible. They have a long life, and can withstand electrical abuse (overcharge, overdischarge, short-circuiting, etc.). They are higher cost than lead acid batteries and have a low cell voltage, low power density, and lower energy density than competitive systems. Iron-silver batteries have been used in special electronics applications. The iron-silver oxide batteries have a high energy density and a high cycle life, but they are expensive. Iron / air batteries may be used as m tive power systems. They have good energy density and low self-discharge, but they have a low efficiency and poor low temperature performance.
Lead acid batteries are rechargeable batteries that represent about 60% of all batteries sold worldwide. All lead batteries work on the same set of reactions and use the same active materials. At the positive electrode, lead dioxide (PbO2) is converted to lead sulfate (PbSO4) and at the negative electrode, sponge metallic lead (Pb) is also converted to lead sulfate (PbSO4). The electrolyte is a dilute mixture of sulfuric acid that provides the sulfate ion for the discharge reactions. Lead acid batteries are separated in two ways: application and construction. The major applications are starting (automotive), deep-cycle, and dual purpose (marine). The major construction types are flooded (wet), gel cell, and Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM).
Lithium / Lithium Ion
Lithium batteries are a unique style of batteries. Unlike most battery styles, they are available in both primary and secondary styles (nonrechargeable and rechargeable) with a few varieties that cross between. Lithium batteries are backup power sources for electronic equipment that can be divided into two large groups: those providing full backup power to run a piece of equipment during a power outage; and memory backup, which does not provide active power to run a price of equipment. Instead it serves as a long-term power source so that memory components can retain necessary information.Lithium batteries consist of a lithium anode, which is an organic electrolyte that conducts the current, and a cathode. Lithium cobalt oxide, a material from which lithium can be easily removed, is the most common cathod compound. When the battery is charged, lithium ions are driven from the cathode into the anode; when the charge is removed, the lithium flows back to the cathode. Common types of secondary lithium batteries include: lithium / iron sulfide (LiFeSx), lithium / manganese titanium (LiMnTi), lithium / polymer, lithium-ion (including lithium / cobalt oxide , lithium / nickel oxide , and lithium / manganese oxide ), lithium-vanadium pentoxide (Li/V2O5), lithium / manganese dioxide (Li/MnO2), and lithium / titanium disulfide (Li/TiS2).
Metal / Air
Metal / air batteries have been the recipient of much interest, because of their high energy density, long shelf life, low cost, and environmental soundness.
Nickel-cadmium batteries (Ni-Cd) are best known as the small AA size rechargeable batteries used in children?s toys. One of the most widely used rechargeable batteries. Very dependable but contain cadmium and have relatively low capacity when compared to other rechargeable systems. Very good high rate discharge capabilities make them very popular in high drain applications such as power tools. A more evolved version of the simple nickel-cadmium battery, the vented sintered-plate nickel-cadmium battery is a secondary battery comprised of twenty individual cells.
The sealed nickel hydrogen secondary battery (Ni-H2) is a hybrid combining battery and fuel-cell technologies. These batteries have a long cycle life (exceeding all other maintenance-free secondary battery systems), high specific energy, high power density, and tolerance for electrical abuse. Applications include mainly the aerospace field, but programs have been started for long-life stand-alone photovoltaic systems.
Interchangeable with most nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCd), nickel metal hydride (NiMH) batteries generally deliver 10-25% greater capacity than NiCds and are more environmentally friendly than NiCds since they do not contain cadmium. Used in many wireless phones and camcorders.
Characterized by a high specific energy and power capability, nickel-zinc batteries (Ni-Zn) provide energy for lectric vehicle applications, such as small vans and passenger cars.
Silver oxide batteries (AgO) are noted for their high energy density and power density. The silver electrode is high cost, and this has limited the use of the silver oxide batteries to applications such as lightweight medical and electronic equipment, submarines, torpedoes, and space applications. The silver-zinc cell has the highest energy per unit weight and volume. Other silver oxide batteries are silver-cadmium and silver-iron.
Rechargeable Zinc / Alkaline / Manganese Dioxide
These are the rechargeable “primary” types. They have a low initial cost, good retention of capacity, and are completely sealed and maintenance-free. However, their useful capacity is only about two-thirds that of the primary cells, they have a limited life cycle, and the available energy decreases rapidly with cycling and depth of discharge.
Valve Regulated Lead-Acid (VRLA) batteries are sealed batteries, but a valve regulating mechanism allows for safe escape of hydrogen and oxygen gasses wile charging.