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battery fundamentals free download book


Table of Contents
Part One – Battery Basics Everyone Should Know
Author’s Note
Introduction
Chapter 1: When was the battery invented?
Chapter 2: Battery Chemistries

Chemistry ComparisonThe Nickel Cadmium (NiCd) BatteryThe Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) BatteryThe Lead Acid BatteryThe Lithium Ion BatteryThe Lithium Polymer BatteryReusable Alkaline BatteriesThe Supercapacitor
Chapter 3: The Battery Pack

The Cylindrical CellThe Button CellThe prismatic CellThe Pouch CellSeries and Parallel ConfigurationsProtection Circuits
Chapter 4: Proper Charge Methods

All About ChargersCharging the Nickel Cadmium BatteryCharging the Nickel-Metal Hydride BatteryCharging the Lead Acid BatteryCharging the Lithium Ion Battery Charging the Lithium Polymer Battery Charging at High and Low Temperatures Ultra-fast Chargers Charge IC Chips
Chapter 5: Discharge Methods

C-rateDepth of DischargePulse DischargeDischarging at High and Low Temperature
Part Two ? You and the Battery
Chapter 6: The Secrets of Battery Runtime

Declining CapacityIncreasing Internal Resistance Elevated Self-Discharge Premature Voltage Cut-off
Chapter 7: The ?Smart? Battery

The Single Wire Bus The SMBus The State-of-Charge Indicator The Tri-State Fuel GaugeThe Target Capacity Selector Fuel Gauges for Large Batteries
Chapter 8: Choosing the Right Battery

What?s the best battery for mobile phones?What?s the best battery for two-way radios? What?s the best battery forlaptops?Selecting a Lasting Battery
Chapter 9: Internal Battery Resistance

Why do seemingly good batteries fail on digital equipment?How is the internal battery resistance measured?What?s the difference between internal resistance and impedance?
Chapter 10: Getting the Most from your Batteries

Memory: myth or fact? How to Restore and Prolong Nickel-based BatteriesThe Effect of ZappingHow to Restore and Prolong Sealed Lead Acid BatteriesHow to Prolong Lithium-based BatteriesBattery Recovery Rate
Chapter 11: Maintaining Fleet Batteries

The ?Green Light? LiesBattery Maintenance, a Function of Quality ControlBattery Maintenance Made SimpleBattery Maintenance as a Business
Chapter 12: Battery Maintenance Equipment

Conditioning ChargersBattery AnalyzersBattery Analyzers for Maintenance-Free BatteriesBattery hroughputBattery Maintenance Software
Chapter 13: Making Battery Quick-Test Feasible

Battery Specific Quick TestingThree-Point Quick Test The Evolving Battery The Cadex Quicktest MethodHow does the Cadex Quicktest work? Battery Testing and the Internet Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy
Part Three ? Knowing Your Battery
Chapter 14: Non-Correctable Battery Problems

High Self-dischargeLow Capacity Cells Cell Mismatch Shorted Cells Loss of Electrolyte
Caring for Your Batteries from Birth to Retirement

Storage PrimingThe Million Dollar Battery Problem To the Service Counter, and No FurtherThe Quick Fix Battery Warranty Battery Recycling
Chapter 16: Practical Battery Tips

Personal Field ObservationsThe Correct Battery for the Job Battery Analyzers for Critical Missions
Chapter 17: Did you know . . . ?

The Cost of Mobile PowerThe Fuel Cell The Electric Vehicle Strengthening the Weakest Link
Part Four ?Beyond Batteries
Chapter 18: Beginnings and Horizons

About the Author About Cadex Working with Natural BeautyCustomer CommentsCadex Products
Frequently Asked Questions about Batteries (FAQ)

During the last few decades, rechargeable batteries have made only moderate improvements in terms of higher capacity and smaller size. Compared with the vast advancements in areas such as microelectronics, the lack of progress in battery technology is apparent. Consider a computer memory core of the sixties and compare it with a modern microchip of the same byte count. What once measured a cubic foot now sits in a tiny chip. A comparable size reduction would literally shrink a heavy-duty car battery to the size of a coin. Since batteries are still based on an electrochemical process, a car battery the size of a coin may not be possible using our current techniques.

Research has brought about a variety of battery chemistries, each offering distinct advantages but none providing a fully satisfactory solution. With today?s increased selection, however, better choices can be applied to suit a specific user application.

The consumer market, for example, demands high energy densities and small sizes. This is done to maintain adequate runtime on portable devices that are becoming increasingly more powerful and power hungry. Relentless downsizing of portable equipment has pressured manufacturers to invent smaller batteries. This, however, must be done without sacrificing runtimes. By packing more energy into a pack, other qualities are often compromised. One of these is longevity.

Long service life and predictable low internal resistance are found in the NiCd family. However, this chemistry is being replaced, where applicable, with systems that provide longer runtimes. In addition, negative publicity about the memory phenomenon and concerns of toxicity in disposal are causing equipment manufacturers to seek alternatives.

Once hailed as a superior battery system, the NiMH has also failed to provide the universal battery solution for the twenty-first century. Shorter than expected service life remains a major complaint.

The lithium-based battery may be the best choice, especially for the fast-moving commercial
ma

rket
. Maintenance-free and dependable, Li-ion is the preferred choice for many because it offers small size and long runtime. But this battery system is not without problems. A relatively rapid aging process, even if the battery is not in use, limits the life to between two and three years. In addition, a current-limiting safety circuit limits the discharge current, rendering the Li-ion unsuitable for applications requiring a heavy load. The Li-ion polymer exhibits similar characteristics to the Li-ion. No major breakthrough has been achieved with this system. It does offer a very slim form factor but this quality is attained in exchange for slightly less energy density.

With rapid developments in technology occurring t

oday, battery systems that use neither nickel, lead nor lithium may soon become viable. Fuel cells, which enable uninterrupted operation by drawing on a continuous supply of ful, may solve the portable energy needs in the future. Instead of a charger, the user carries a bottle of liquid energy. Such a battery would truly change the way we live and work.

This book addresses the most commonly used consumer and industrial batteries, which are NiCd, NiMH, Lead Acid, and Li-ion/polymer. It also includes the reusable alkaline for comparison. The absence of other rechargeable battery systems is done for reasons of clarity. Some weird and wonderful new battery inventions may only live in experimental labs. Others may be used for specialty applications, such as military and aerospace. Since this book addresses the non-engineer, it is the author?s wish to keep the matter as simple as possible.





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