The basic antenna
The most basic antenna is called “a quarter wave vertical”, it is a quarter wavelength long and is a vertical radiator. Typical examples of this type would be seen installed on motor vehicles for two way communications. Technically the most basic antenna is an “isotropic radiator”. This is a mythical antenna which radiates in all directions as does the light from a lamp bulb. It is the standard against which we sometimes compare other antennas.

This type of antenna relies upon an “artificial ground” of either drooping radials or a car body to act as ground. Sometimes the antenna is worked against an actual ground.

Antenna Polarisation

Depending upon how the antenna is orientated physically determines it’s polarisation. An antenna erected vertically is said to be “vertically polarised” while an antenna erected horizontally is saidto be “horizontally polarised”. Other specialised antennas exist with “cross polarisation”, having both vertical and horizontal components and we can have “circular polarisation”.

Note that when a signal is transmitted at one polarisation but received at a different polarisation there exists a great manydecibels of loss.

This is quite significant and is often taken advantage of when TV channels and other services are allocated. If there is a chance of co-channel interference then the license will stipulate a different polarisation. Have you ever noticed vertical and horizontal TV antennas in some areas. Now you know why.

Free Antenna Design softwares ;
Antenna Design Tutorial

Antenna Elmer Information about wire antennas as well as directional beams

Antenna Software links from AC6V

Antenna Polarization Control

Antennas Application Note ;

Antennas: Design, Application, and Performance

antenneX ; discussion group in antenna

Automated Antenna Design , evolved technology

The Basics of Patch Antennas application note

Robot Antenna Design article

Compact Integrated Antennas app note

Security, Surveillance and Telemetry ;european-antennas

Wireless LAN ;european-antennas

Fixed Radio Access (FRA) ;european-antennas

Ground Comms and Satellite ;european-antennas

Microcell Mobile Telecommunication ;european-antennas

The Vector Series, WiMAX compatible ;european-antennas

Military and Defence ;european-antennas

RFID application notes

HF Antenna Design Notes

2.4GHz Broadband Helical Antenna ;

Waveguide WiFi Antenna

J-Pole Antenna Design ; include calculator also

Log Periodic Antenna calculates the dimensions and spacings of the elements

Loop Antennas article by radio works

A Microstrip Edge-Fed Patch Antenna with Inset Feed app note

Miniaturized Antenna Design for MIMO Communication Systems

Multi-Pitch,Multi-Band Helical Antenna

N4UJW Antenna Design Lab, so many antenna design projects

New Helix Antenna Design for the Mars Observer Experiment

The Quagi Antenna

Simple Gain Antennas for the Beginner

Smart Antenna Design, antenna diversity
Standard Antenna Terms and Related Formulas
Stretching the Limit of Embedded Antenna Design

Useful Antenna Design Formulas

VHF UHF Antenna Design app note

Yagi Antenna Design







mobius winding techniques

radio telescopes

The quarter wave vertical antenna

The quarter wave vertical antenna is usually the simplest to construct and erect although I know a great many people who would dispute that statement. In this context I am speaking of people (the majority) who have limited space to erect an antenna.

a quarter wave vertical antenna with drooping radials
Figure 1. – a quarter wave vertical antenna with drooping radials

In figure 1 we have depicted a quarter wave vertical antenna with drooping radials which would be about 45 degrees from horizontal. These 45 degree drooping radials simulate an artificial ground and lead to an antenna impedance of about 50 ohms.

A quarter wave vertical antenna could also be erected directly on the ground and indeed many AM radio transmitting towers accomplish this especially where there is suitable marshy ground noted for good conductivity. An AM radio transmitting tower of a quarter wave length erected for say 810 Khz in the AM band would have a length of nearly 88 metres (288′) in height.

a marconi antenna
Figure 2. – a marconi antenna

The formula for quarter wave is L = 71.25 metres / freq (mhz) and in feet L = 234 / freq (mhz). Note the variance from the standard wavelength formula of 300 / freq. This is because we allow for “velocity factor” of 5% and our wavelength formula becomes 285 / freq.

When a quarter wave antenna is erected and “worked” against a good rf ground
(called a Marconi Antenna) the earth provides a “mirror” image of the missing half of the desired half wave antenna.

In figure 2 above where I have depicted the Marconi Antenna imagine a duplicate of the quarter wave antenna being in existence from the top of the ground and extending down the page. This is the mirror image.

Half wave dipole antenna

The half wave dipole antenna becomes quite common where space permits. It can be erected vertically but is more often than not erected horizontally forpractical reasons. I gave quite a good example of its use in my paper on radio telescopes from my original site. I have reproduced it in figure 3 below.

a half wave dipole antenna
Figure 3. – half wave dipole antenna

This particular antenna was dimensioned for use at 30 Mhz. You will note that the left and right hand halves are merely quarter wave sections determined by the formula given earlier. The input impedance (affected by many factors) is nominally 50 ohms.

As with all antennas, the height above ground and proximity to other objects such as buildings, trees, guttering etc. play an important part. However, reality says we must live with what we can achieve in the real world notwithstanding what theory may say.

People erect half wave dipoles in attics constructed of fine gauge wire – far from ideal BUT they get reasonable results by living with less than the “ideal”. A lesson in life we should always remember in more ways than one.

The folded dipole antenna

The folded dipole antenna is probably only ever seen as a TV antenna. It exhibits an impedance of 300 ohms whereas a half wave dipole is 75 ohms and I’m certain someone will be alert enough to ask “why 75 ohms, if figure 3 above is 50 ohms?”.

Within the limits of my artistic skills I have depicted a folded dipole antenna below.

half wave folded dipole antenna
Figure 4. – half wave folded dipole

One powerful advantage of a folded dipole antenna is that is has a wide bandwidth, in fact a one octave bandwidth. This is the reason it was often used as a TV antenna for multi channel use. Folded dipole antennas were mainly used in conjuction with Yagi antennas.

The Yagi antenna

The Yagi antenna or more correctly, the Yagi – Uda antenna was developed by Japanese scientists in the 1930’s. It consists of a half wave dipole (sometimes a folded one, sometimes not), a rear “reflector” and may or may not have one or more forward “directors”. These are collectively referred to as the “elements”.

the Yagi antenna Figure 5. – the Yagi antenna

In figure 5 above I have reprinted a UHF Yagi antenna array from my radio telescopes page. You will note, not altogther clearly.

However in figure 6 below, which happens to be a photograph of a neighbour’s TV antenna, I can clearly point out details of a practical Yagi antenna.

This particular antenna has been optimised for dual band operation. It is designed to pick up both VHF and UHF transmissions. Because I live in a regional of NSW in Australia, TV antennas tend to be single channel types designed either for higher gain or better directivity. Different examples will be presented later.

a practical Yagi TV antenna
Figure 6. – a practical Yagi TV antenna

Looking from left to right on this dual band Yagi we have six UHF “director” elements which improve gain and directivity. Next is the UHF half wave dipole which could have easily been a folded dipole but is in fact a plain half wave dipole.

The next three much longer elements form a “phased array” for the VHF band. I am unsure of the function of the three remaining smaller elements, information is quite scant here but one would certainly be a UHF “reflector”. Likely the
other two also fulfill this function also.

Note: This is a horizontally polarised antenna and is orientated roughly NNW, 315 degrees.

You will notice the effect of very strong storms from the sea have had in bending the second larger elements. In my locality storms are a problem but not as much as roosting parrots such as large sulphur crested cockatoos.

UHF Yagi antenna

In the photograph in figure 7 below you can see a classic UHF Yagi antenna. It has a total of nineteen “elements” comprising seventeen “directors”, a fancy folded dipole with a “low-noise mast head amplifier” and a “reflector”.

a vertically polarised UHF Yagi antenna
Figure 7. – a vertically polarised UHF Yagi antenna
This is a a vertically polarised UHF Yagi antenna and it is orientated WSW or 225 degrees. It does in fact pick up signals about 100 Km or 60 mile distant from Sydney.

This is the very same antenna I was suggesting to be used in the radio telescope array I depicted in figure 5 above.

Stacked half wave dipoles or a collinear array

The majority of TV antennas in my retirement village are stacked half wave dipoles. These consist of four sets of a half wave dipole and a reflector only, but mounted one above another. These antennas owe their origin to the days we only had VHF TV in the area. Surprising with the introduction of UHF they continued to function quite well in picking up UHF as well. This particular antenna is my one and I’ve never had the need to go to a UHF antenna. The top two elements normally are home to roosting “top knot” pidgeons, a pigeon native to Australia.

four stacked half wave dipoles collinear antenna
Figure 8. – four stacked half wave dipoles collinear antenna

To the left of the photograph are the “reflectors” and to the right are the four vertically stacked half wave dipoles. The wires connecting each half wave dipole are done in a “phased way”. This comprises a collinear antenna array and is so arranged for improved gain.

Note this antenna is horizontally polarised.

Loop Antennas

The loop antenna comes in an amazing number of configurations. It is a “small space” antenna and although extremely inefficient is capable of surprising results. In receiving applications the loop antenna works on the principle of the “differences” in voltages induced by the current flowing in the sides of the antenna. As you might imagine these difference voltages can be extremely minute in amplitude and any loop antenna usually requires an associated amplifier capable of at least 25 dB power gain following it.

One example of a shielded loop antenna is taken from my tutorial on mobius winding techniques is shown in figure 9 below.

mobius winding of a loop antenna
Figure 9. – mobius winding of a loop antenna

This is the general loop antenna which has one interesting characteristic. It responds well to signals arriving in one direction, either from the left hand side of your computer screen or the right hand side of your computer screen for the loop shown in figure 9 (b) above. Signals from either your face or from behind your monitor would produce equal signal currents from both sides of the loop and consequently produce no difference voltage output.

Technically speaking, a loop antenna responds to the magnetic field rather than the electric field.

Rather than being omnidirectional (as a whip antenna would be) the loop antenna responds to the cosine of the angle between its face and the direction of arrival of the electromagnetic wave. This actually produces a figure eight pattern, which for receiving presents no probems. The addition of a small whip antenna in conjuction with proper phasing allows the direction ambiguity to be resolved and we have an antenna relatively ideal for direction finding.

The most common loop antenna you will encounter is the loopstick antenna [in the U.K. it is referred to as a “ferrite rod antenna”] built into portable receivers. In figure 10 below is the AM and shortwave loopstick antenna in a Sanyo model RP2127 MW / SW receiver (it’s old).

AM and shortwave loopstick antenna
Figure 10. – AM and shortwave loopstick antenna
The AM and shortwave loopstick antenna is located in the upper half under the words “loopstick antenna”. For greater efficiency and size reduction, a loopstick antenna is wound on a “ferrite” rod. This particular one happens to be circular but you may encounter ones which are rectangular.

As an experiment you might, if you have a loopstick antenna radio available, tune to a weak station and rotate the radio around 360 degrees. You should notice two points 180 degrees apart where the signals seem to be the strongest and similarly notice two other points 180 degrees apart where the signals seem to be the weakest – these are called “nulls”. This is the aid to “Radio Direction Finding – RDF”.

Using the Small Loop Antenna

Joseph J. Carr, Universal Radio Research
Small loop antennas have an overall wire length. They exhibit deep nulls perpendicular to the plane of the loop, and broad maxima off the ends of the loop. The pattern of these small loop antennas is a variant of the classic “Figure-8” pattern.Although the loop has less gain than a dipole, the radiation pattern and small size make the antenna quite useful for certain situations…

Using the Small Loop Antenna

The K9AY Terminated Loop — A Compact, Directional Receiving Antenna

Wish you had enough room for an effective low-band receiving antenna? You do!
This four-direction system fits in a 30-foot circle!

By Gary Breed, K9AY
Low-band operators are always looking for ways to improve their hearing.

K9AY Terminated Loop — A Compact, Directional Receiving Antenna – PDF File 159 kB.

Terminated Tilted Folded Dipole

Now here is a little gem. The terminated tilted folded dipole is bound to give a “rush of blood to the head” of any avid DX’er (that means long distance -dx- receive / transmit enthusiast).

The terminated tilted folded dipole is somewhat similar to the half wave folded dipole in figure 4 above yet the claims for its performance are quite astonishing. The terminated tilted folded dipole is claimed to have a bandwidth of something like 5 or 6 to one, been extensively tested and adopted by the US Navy, easy to construct from readily available materials and, has a feedpoint impedance of around 300 ohms.

Terminated Tilted Folded Dipole


Antenna Dimensions Calculator Dipoles From AMANDX
Antenna Dimensions Calculators Loops, Dipoles, Delta Loop, and 5/8 waves
Antenna Dimensions Calculator
Antenna Gain
Antenna Height?
Antenna Tuner Theory
Antenna Tuners and SWR
Antenna Tuners – How to use
Baluns What Do They Do
Baluns and Choke Baluns
Baluns Antenna Articles
Capture Area Of Antennas
Choosing Wire For An Antenna
Coaxial Cable Trap Building
Dipole End Insulator Installation
Electromagnetic Waves and Antennas
Feed-Lines ImpedanceMatching
Ground Radial Systems
Ground and Radial Systems
Ground Characteristics,
Ground Systems
Height Of Dipoles
Lightning Protection
Loaded Antennas
Noise, Technical article about noise and receiving/ receiving antennas
Radials and Ground Systems From Butternut
Radials and Ground SystemsFrom SteppIR
Radiation And Fields
Radiation Resistance
Slingshot method for hanging SkyWires
Stacking Yagi Antennas
Stacking Yagis
Stacking Yagis
Stacking Yagis
Transmission lines, coax, swr, waveguides
Tuner, Antenna
Vertical Antennas
Vertical Antenna Design
Antenna Basics and Theory
Antenna Basics and Theory
Antenna Basics and Theory
Antenna Basics and Theory
Antenna Tutorial
Antenna Basic Radiation Theory-
Antenna Basics and Theory
Antenna Construction
TipsMetals to use.

Antenna Design Information Software
Antenna Dimension Calculators
Antenna Dimension Calculators Dipoles

QuarterWave Antenna installation notes

The Antenna
The DxZone antenna article
ARRL Antenna Projects Web Page
Antennas A Bunch
Ace’s Antennas


COMMENT Uncategorized

  1. kim

    Would anyone know the length of the radials on the top hat of a 5/8 wave antenna.And how long it should be at the centre pole thanks

    • Guru

      Please go through the design material of antenna at


  2. gain of antenna

    The ratio of the signal of a directional antenna to that of a non-directional rod antenna. Used as a measure of the effectiveness of a directional antenna as compared to a standard non-directional antenna. The value is given in dB . Positive values are achieved in the direction of radiation, while negative values are achieved at the “back” of the antenna. Antenna gain is used to refer to both transmission and receiving antennas.