Alkaline battery

Alkaline battery
Alkaline storage batteries are small, light weight and provide high output densities. In recent years, alkaline storage batteries have been used as power s urces for portable information equipment such as cellular phones and notebook computers, electric cars, or hybrid vehicles. Small primary electrochemical cells have been commercially available for more than a century. The most successful of these cells have been the cylindrical alkaline batteries of the well known “AAA”, “AA”, “C” and “D” sizes. Primary alkaline electrochemical cells typically include a zinc anode active material, an alkaline electrolyte, a manganese dioxide cathode active material, and an electrolyte permeable separator film, typically of cellulose or cellulosic and polyvinylalcohol fibers. The cathode serves as the battery’s positive electrode and is typically formed of a mixture of manganese dioxide and carbon or graphite particles. The anode serves as the battery’s negative electrode and is generally formed of zinc particles mixed with a gelling agent. Alkaline secondary batteries, which are highly reliable and suitable for a reduction in weight, are widely used as power sources for various devices and apparatuses from portable devices to industrial large facilities. An alkaline secondary battery comprises an electrolyte, at least one cathode electrode and at least one anode electrode, in which the electrolyte at least partially surrounds the cathode electrode and the anode electrode. Also there is optionally a separator which lies between the cathode electrode and the anode electrode. In most alkaline secondary batteries, nickel electrodes are used as positive electrodes. A nickel electrode has a structure including a collector for collecting electricity and a positive-electrode active material inducing a cell reaction supported on the collector. Nickel electrodes for alkaline storage batteries are classified into sintered electrodes and nonsintered electrodes. In alkaline storage batteries including a nickel-metal hydride battery, nickel-cadmium battery, and the like, a sintered nickel electrode for alkaline storagebattery has been used as its positive electrode because of its superior charge/discharge characteristic at high electric current.