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IC-INTEGRATED CIRCUIT SALES, DESIGN, DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING

Integrated circuit design , or IC design , is a branch of electronics engineering should have semiconductor, vlsi, logic and circuit design techniques required to design ICs.

IC SALES GROUP

IC-INTEGRATED CIRCUIT PRODUCTS COMPONENTS SALES AND SERVICE -ANALOG, DIGITAL, DSP, RF IC, WIRLESS IC, VLSI

IC DESIGN GROUP

IC-INTEGRATED CIRCUIT DESIGN, LAYOUT , FOUNDRY SUPPORT , DESIGN CONSULTANCY, EDA TOOLS, CADENCE, SYNOPSIS, MENTOR GRAPHICS, RTL, VERILOG, BACKEND SERVICE

IC design can be divided into the broad categories of digital and analog IC design. Digital IC design is used to produce components such as microprocessors, FPGAs, memories (RAM, ROM, and flash) and digital ASICs. Digital design focuses on logical correctness, maximizing circuit density, and placing circuits so that clock and timing signals are routed efficiently. Analog IC design also has specializations in power IC design and RF IC design. Analog IC design is used in the design of op-amps, linear regulators, phase locked loops, oscillators and active filters. Analog design is more concerned with the physics of the semiconductor devices such as gain, matching, power dissipation, and resistance.

ICs consist of miniaturized electronic components built into an electrical network on a monolithic semiconductor substrate by manufacturing process in the foundry.

ic design resources

Software for IC Design and Circuit Design Verification


The most comprehensive IC design , verification, DFM and test technologies available today. Our technologies address the most pressing challenges facing IC development teams for custom analog and digital, RTL synthesis, digital place and route, mixed-signal and system-on- chip
Designing for Optimal integration of Analog and Digital As IC has analog components also inbuilt , some design practices are required for optimal integration. Ensure in the floor planning stage that the analog block and the digital block are not siting close-by, to reduce the noise.
Using the Design Platform, you can quickly develop advanced digital, custom, and analog/mixed-signal designs with the best power, performance,
custom, analog, and RF design solutions can help you save time by automating routine tasks, from mixed-signal simulation to library characterization.

ic fabrication

The end product of fabrication is functioning chips that are ready for packaging and final electrical testing before being shipped to the customer. The intermediate steps are referred to as wafer fabrication (including sort). Wafer fabrication refers to the set of manufacturing processes used to create semiconductor devices and circuits. other name of ics are chip, die, device, microchip.

An Integrated Circuit-IC is also called as chip or microchip. It is a semiconductor wafer in which millions of components are fabricated. The active and passive components such as resistors, diodes, transistors etc and external connections are usually fabricated in on extremely tiny single chip of silicon, or GaAs or SiGe wafer
IC Fabrication Process Steps. The fabrication of integrated circuits consists basically of the following process steps: Lithography: The process for pattern definition by applying thin uniform layer of viscous liquid (photo-resist) on the wafer surface.
about VLSI IC designing front end design and backend design
The starting material for integrated circuit ( IC ) fabrication is the single crys- tal silicon wafer. The end product of fabrication is functioning chips that are ready for
Integrated circuits compose the major portion of the field of microelectronics and may consist of film, monolithic or hybrid circuits. A monolithic IC consists
Semiconductor device fabrication is the process used to create the integrated circuits that are The high degree of automation common in the IC fabrication industry helps to reduce the risks of exposure. Most fabrication facilities employ
Semiconductor device fabrication is the process used to create the integrated circuits that are present in everyday electrical and electronic systems. fabrication sequence.

vlsi design flow

The VLSI design flow can be divided into two parts: Frontend design flow and Backend design flow. Both together, allow the creation of a functional chip from scratch to production.

Synthesis = Translation + Optimization + Mapping
Synthesis is responsible for converting the RTL description into a structural gate level based netlist. This netlist instantiates every element (standard cells and macros) that compose the circuit and its connections.

Synopsys Design Compiler is the tool used to perform a logical synthesis. Its inputs are:
The RTL description-Verilog or VHDL;
The GTECH library-General technology library. Not tied to any specific technology (gates, flip flops);
DesignWare Library-Synthetic library (adders, multipliers, comparators, etc).
The standard cell library-the specific target library;
The defined constraints-synthesis goals regarding timing, area, capacitance, max
transition, fanout. Delivered by the Frontend team.
Design Environment: The operating conditions (Libraries corners), wire load models.

ic testing


The tester is used to test an IC for any opens and/or shorts on any IC connection (pin/BGA). The test of the IC is intended to insure that all common pins are connected to the same network of pins, independent pins make a connection to the die, and there are no shorted pins. The continuity test verifies the common pins are connected and that no pins are shorted. Additional tests are used to insure all the independent pins make a connection to the die.
highly sophisticated instruments and test systems have developed that are automatically programmed by computer, tape, or printed-circuit card.
The integrated circuits (IC-s) testing is a time consuming task. In order to get shorter test time, structural testing methods were developed. These testing methods were initially applied for digital IC-s, based on modeling faults and simulation the fault effect on the IC behavior in test conditions. The digital tested IC is powered, the gates works normally and the internal IC structure is verified. a practical system implementation for testing virtually any kind of integrated circuit ( IC ). The testing method
The tester is used to test an IC for any opens and/or shorts on any IC connection The tester does not perform parametric testing of the IC .
Low cost TestJet in-circuit test and in system programming reduces the cost of test over Agilent Test Jet,
Multimeter can only be used to test the IC dc supply voltage and to use the ohm range to find out if the IC is shorted to ground or not.
Semiconductor Test products are designed to meet the needs of developers and manufacturers of stand-alone integrated circuits, System on a Chip
Semiconductor technology requirements often outpace the test coverage that traditional ATE provides for analog, mixed-signal, and RF test. Semiconductor test
Wafer testing is a step performed during semiconductor device fabrication. During this step, performed before a wafer is sent to die preparation, Novel Crosstalk Evaluation Method for High-Density Signal Traces Using Clock Waveform Conversion Technique.
Amkor provides a complete range of semiconductor testing services including wafer testing, various types of final testing, system level testing, strip testing and

ic circuit design

The most comprehensive IC design , verification, DFM and test technologies available today. Our technologies address the most pressing challenges facing IC development teams for custom analog and digital, RTL synthesis, digital place and route, mixed-signal and system-on- chip
Integrated Circuit Design focuses on smart IC design techniques to IC design is of major industrial importance, and this is even more true of

ic layout

The layout editor is the premier working tool of the designer and exists primarily for the generation of a physical representation of a design, given a circuit topology
Electric EDA tool is use to draw schematics and to make integrated circuit ( IC ) layouts . It can also handle languages like perl Language
An Integrated circuit layout editor or IC layout editor is an electronic design automation software tool that allows a user to digitize the shapes and patterns that
Zeni is a high performance EDA tool, providing front to back solutions for full custom analog and mixed signal IC design. Zeni Physical Design Tool (Zeni PDT) is a fully hierarchical, multi-window, full-custom IC layout editing environment. It supports the physical implementation of
Cadence is the most widely used , for IC layout designing, however there are many other tools like synopsis, silvaco, mentor graphics tool,
Glade (Gds, Lef And Def Editor), is a IC layout and schematic editor capable of display speeds, but also supports software rendering for older hardware.
The software aims to support all kinds of circuit simulation types, e.g. DC, AC, Is a cross-platform IC layout editor supporting GDS, OASIS and CIF formats.

analog layout

Drawing layout for anlog circuits and blocks like data converter, pll, opamp manually using different software.
Analog layout Issues Random noise refers to noise generated by resistors and active devices in an integrated circuit; MULTI-GATE FINGER LAYOUT reduces the gate resistance of the poly-silicon and the neutral body region, which are both random noise sources. layout analog circuits according with the circuit scheme
Analog circuits often use structures like differential pairs and current mirrors, where matching of device characteristics such as the threshold
Integrated circuit layout , also known IC layout , IC mask layout , or mask design, is the This practice is often subdivided between two primary layout disciplines: Analog and digital. The generated layout must pass a series of checks in a process

semiconductor foundries

TSMC, GLOBAL FOUNDRY, UMC, SMIC, TOWER JAZZ, TOSHIBA, INTEL ETC manufacture ics for the market.
TSMC is the largest dedicated semiconductor foundry.
Micron, Singapore . Powerchip Semiconductor ,
GLOBALFOUNDRIES is a semiconductor foundry , manufacturing integrated circuits in high volume mostly for semiconductor technology companies across the
American Semiconductor Available from these semiconductor and MEMS wafer foundries :

rfic

RFIC is an abbreviation of Radio Frequency Integrated Circuit. Applications for RFICs include radar and communications, although the term RFIC might be applied to any electrical integrated circuit operating in a frequency range suitable for wireless transmission.
Transceiver architectures for cuurent wireless communications standards; active/passive device technologies for RFIC implementations; low noise amplifiers;
RFIC for wireless connectivity, whether found in cellular or Wi-Fi networks, connected home and automation, or ultra-low power MCUs, smart RF
RFIC technologies www.rficdesign.com is for design service in semiconductor business across the world.We are Expert in complete transceiver for any wireless system, Projects are has a dedicated team that develops RF Integrated Circuits ( RFICs ) and Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMICs) using GaAs, Si, SiGe and
Radio-Frequency Integrated Circuits ( RFIC ) & Microwave Communication Device Laboratory. Find us at. Introduction. In this laboratory,we are now focusing our
Our group conducts research on the design of integrated circuits for wireless communication. We design RF, microwave, and mm-wave devices, circuits, and

IC LAYOUT SOFTWARE

magic http://opencircuitdesign.com/magic
lasi http://lasihomesite.com COMMERCIAL software
ledit Tanner Research Inc. http://www.tanner.com/
virtuoso Cadence Design Systems, http://www.cadence.com
icstation Mentor Graphics Corp. http://www.mentor.com
synopsis https://www.synopsys.com/

BASIC VLSI-IC TERMINOLOGY



Frontend flow The frontend flow is responsible to determine a solution for a given problem or opportunity and transform it into a RTL circuit description. The stages of the front end flow are identified

Backend flow The backend process is responsible for the physical implementation of a circuit. It transforms the RTL circuit description into a physical design, composed by gates and its interconnections. The main phases of the backend process are Synthesis and Place&Route.

Parasitic extraction Parasitic extraction has the objective to create an accurate RC model of the circuit so that future simulations and timing, power and IR Drop analyses can emulate the real circuit response. Only with this information, all the analyses and simulations can report results close to the real functioning of the circuit.

Static Timing Analysis (STA) STA is a method to obtain accurate timing information without the need to simulate the circuit. It allows detecting setup and hold times violations, as well as skew and slow paths that limit the operation frequency.

Place&Route Place&Route is the backend stage that converts the gate level netlist produced during synthesis into a physical design. Although the name denotes for two phases, the Place&Route stage can be divided in three steps: Placement, Clock Tree Synthesis (CTS) and Routing. Placement involves placing all macros and cells into a certain and predefined space. It is done in two phases. The first one, called Coarse Placement, places the standard cells in order to optimize timing and/or congestion but not taking in account overlapping prevention. The second phase, which is named Legalize, eliminates overlap problems by placing the overlapping cells in the closest available space.

DRC-DESIGN RULE CHECKER
Design rule violation is automatically detected and reported in DRC. (Design Rule Check). A semiconductor company accepts only the design that is passed

IC PRODUCTS

POWER SWITCHING REGULATORS BATTERY MANAGEMENT PMICS ISOLATED POWER CHARGE PUMPS LINEAR REGULATORS LED DRIVERS HOT-SWAP ICS MOTOR DRIVER ICS POWER SWITCHING DISPLAY POWER AND CONTROL SUPERVISORS, VOLTAGE MONITORS, AND SEQUENCERS
ANALOG AMPLIFIERS AUDIO VIDEO DATA CONVERTERS SENSORS AND SENSOR INTERFACE SWITCHES AND MULTIPLEXERS FILTERS VOLTAGE REFERENCES
INTERFACE TRANSCEIVERS CONTROLLERS/EXPANDERS LEVEL TRANSLATORS SIGNAL LINE PROTECTION ICS ISOLATION ICS HIGH-SPEED SIGNALING SIGNAL INTEGRITY BROADBAND SWITCHES UNIVERSAL SERIAL BUS (USB) PRODUCTS 4-20MA CURRENT LOOP PRODUCTS

MIXED-SIGNAL TRANSCEIVERS WIDEBAND RECEIVERS WIDEBAND TRANSMITTERS RF POWER DETECTOR DOWNCONVERTING MIXER IQ DEMODULATOR IQ MODULATOR IF TRANSCEIVER WIRELESS INFRASTRUCTURE DIGITAL RADIO PRODUCTS DIGITAL DOWNCONVERTERS RF GAIN BLOCK AMPLIFIERS RF PLLS AND SYNTHESIZERS
AMPLIFIERS A/D CONVERTERS APPLICATION SPECIFIC AUDIO & VIDEO PRODUCTS BROADBAND CLOCK & TIMING D/A CONVERTERS HIGH SPEED LOGIC & DATA PATH MANAGEMENT INDUSTRIAL ETHERNET INTERFACE & ISOLATION LINEAR PRODUCTS MEMS OPTICAL POWER MANAGEMENT PROCESSORS & DSP RF & MICROWAVE SENSORS SWITCHES & MULTIPLEXERS



IC PRODUCTS, IC DESIGN, EDA TOOLS, ANALOG IC , RFIC , WIRELESS IC, VLSI COMPONENTS VLSI INTERVIEW QUESTIONS, GENERAL INTERVIEW QUESTIONS, VLSI JOBS, VLSI COMPANIES,